Static analysis tools for security
David A. Wheeler
There are many static analysis tools, and many of them
look for security vulnerabilities.
Software Assurance Metrics and Tool Evaluation (SAMATE)
project posts a general list of static analysis tools focused on
finding security vulnerabilities.
Wikipedia's pages on
static analysis and
dynamic analysis may prove helpful.
GNU Hurd (!) has a list of analysis programs.
(founder and former technical director of Id Software)’s post
“Static Code Analysis” discusses static analysis in general:
“Automation is necessary...
I feel the success that we have had with code analysis has been clear
enough that I will say plainly it is irresponsible to not use it.”
Carmack also quotes
Dave Revell, “the more I push code through static analysis,
the more I’m amazed that computers boot at all.”
If you’re looking for another FLOSS tool to help you find security
problems in your C programs more in depth,
for now I particularly suggest that you look at my own
Clang Static Analyzer,
Cppcheck focuses on
low false positives so it should be easy to examine its reports.
Flawfinder (my own tool) uses a very simple naive approach
(it is basically a simple lexer), but
that simple approach has its own advantages.
RATS is the project most similar to flawfinder;
it uses the same basic technique, and is also released under the GPL.
I’m a big fan of using multiple tools to find security vulnerabilities.
is intentionally simple, easy-to-use, and easy-to-understand.
It is certainly not the be-all of tools, but that is not the point.
My hope is that flawfinder will encourage people to start looking
into the various tools available, and trying some out.
Software is complex; we need tools to help us find vulnerabilities
ahead-of-time in software we develop.
Other OSS/FS tools/projects that statically analyze programs for
security issues (besides flawfinder) include:
- flawfinder, my security static analysis tool for analyzing C/C++ programs (GPL license).
- Clang Static Analyzer (BSD-like license)
can find bugs in C, C++, and Objective-C programs.
Here are a few comments
about Clang Static Analyzer from a user.
It does inter-procedural analysis with contraint modeling, so it
can do far more in-depth analysis of software.
- Railroader, a static analysis tool for finding security vulnerabilities in Ruby-on-Rails applications (MIT license). Full disclosure: I am the lead maintainer.
- OWASP LAPSE+, a static security analyzer for Java web applications that is a successor to the LAPSE project (GPL).
- FindSecurityBugs (LGPL) is a plug-in for FindBugs for finding security-related defects.
- SPLINT (GPL license).
This works somewhat like lint, searching for probable errors;
to really use it, developers need to add additional annotations to
help the tool identify problems.
This is a very mature program, widely used,
and one you can start using right away on ‘real programs”.
- (Facebook) Infer (BSD license)
is a static analyzer
that looks for defects in Java, C, and Objective-C code code.
It does interprocedural analysis and is based on separation logic
(a logic system with additions specifically for reasoning about programs).
It focuses primarily on
quality issues like resource leaks and null dereferences,
rather than security issues,
but it seems promising.
- Cqual (GPL license).
“Cqual is a type-based analysis tool that provides a lightweight, practical mechanism for specifying and checking properties of C programs.
Cqual extends the type system of C with extra user-defined
The programmer adds type qualifier annotations to their program
in a few key places, and Cqual performs qualifier inference to
check whether the annotations are correct.
The analysis results are presented with a user interface
that lets the programmer browse the inferred qualifiers and their flow paths.”
- MOPS (old BSD license)
“MOPS is designed to check for violations of rules that can be expressed as temporal safety properties. A temporal safety property dictates the order of a sequence of operations. For example, in Unix systems, we might verify that the C program obeys the following rule: a setuid-root process should not execute an untrusted program without first dropping its root privilege.”
It uses a model checking approach.
does static code analysis on PHP code.
It’s currently in PHP, but
RIPS is being rewritten.
- CIL is a framework for
analyzing C programs.
(Berkeley Lazy Abstraction Software Verification Tool).
“BLAST is a software model checker for C programs. The goal
of BLAST is to be able to check that software satisfies behavioral
properties of the interfaces it uses.
BLAST uses counterexample-driven automatic abstraction refinement to
construct an abstract model which is model checked for safety properties.
The abstraction is constructed on-the-fly, and only to the required precision.”
Note: The first version of BLAST was developed at UC Berkeley, but
follow-on work is going on at EPFL.
- BOON (BSD-like license).
BOON stands for “Buffer Overrun detectiON”.
“BOON is a tool for automatically finding buffer overrun vulnerabilities in C source code. Buffer overruns are one of the most common types of security holes, and we hope that BOON will enable software developers and code auditors to improve the quality of security-critical programs.”
ggcc is an extension of the gcc compiler suite that will do static
checking of various kinds.
As of May 2008 it was in early development.
Stanse (GPLv2) is a static analysis framework to find bugs in C code.
It’s written in Java, plus some perl.
Spike PHP Security Audit Tool is for analyzing PHP programs.
Pixy scans PHP
programs for XSS and SQLI vulnerabilities; it is written in Java.
is a general-purpose code analysis system (though their primary interest
is security scanning).
Milk is a
Java source code security scanner built on top of Orizon.
They are connected to OWASP.
PScan (GPL license)
is a source code scanner like flawfinder and RATS,
but has only a limited capability.
It’s really only intended to find
format string problems.
In contrast, both flawfinder and RATS can find
format string problems and many other problems as well.
The Open Source Quality Project
at Berkeley is investigating tools and techniques for assuring software
quality (not just security) of OSS/FS programs.
- Project pedantic’s Czech
by Jose Nazario might become interesting, but
as of April 2004 it looks like that project has halted, with only a buggy
not-ready prototype so far (which is too bad!).
is a general-purpose tool for statically analyzing programs, and
could be used to build vulnerability scanners.
Indeed, there are lots of tools for statically analyzing programs
in a general way, this is only one example.
is a specialized static analysis tool that does
additional type-checking, including checks related to security.
It was originally designed to check the Linux kernel source code.
finally has its own web page.
More information on sparse is available from the
CE Linux forum,
Quick sparse HOWTO by Randy Dunlap, and the
You can download older
snapshots of sparse’s code from codemonkey.
Oink (including Cqual++) (BSD-like license).
(a Collaboration of C++ Static Analysis Tools).
Yasca (BSD license)
is a “simple static analysis tool designed to analyze source code
and for a variety of errors. It is both a framework and an implementation,
and leverages other open source code scanners where applicable.”
You can also see the
Yasca Github site.
is a framework for the development of collaborating
static analyzers for the C language. Many analyzers are provided in the
distribution, including a value analysis plug-in that provides variation
domains for the variables of the program, and Jessie, a plug-in
for computing Hoare style weakest preconditions.
It provides a formal behavioral specification language for C programs
“RTL-check is an extensible and powerful abstract interpretation framework for static analysis of programs from a safety and security perspective. It performs analysis on RTL, which is the low-level intermediate representation generated by GCC. See the documentation section for more information.”
The code is on SourceForge; a good first start to learning about it is to read
Patrice Lacroix master’s thesis.
PMD looks for potential problems in Java code. Not specific to security. (BSD-style license)
other Java program analyzers too.
Findbugs also looks for potential problems in Java code. Not specific to security (LGPL license).
searches for defects in C/C++ code.
It appears to work by tokenizing source files into sequences of tokens and then
matching on the tokens;
thus it's more like flawfinder and RATS, since it does not have
deeper analysis available to it (e.g., it cannot do interprocedural
There’s little documentation, unfortunately, but you can invoke it
like this (use the force option “-f” else it will give up on some files,
and use -a (“all warnings”) to get all details):
cppcheck -a -f ./ 2> cpperr.txt &
analyzes perl programs. It’s really a style checker, not so much a
is a tool to manage checklists when doing manual reviews.
It’s a different kind of tool, but I thought it’d be worth noting.
Warning: it needs .NET and doesn’t run on Mono as of 2011-09-15
(though they are working on that).
GIMPLE AST representation. Treehydra is intended for precise static
analyses. Most of Treehydra is generated by Dehydra. A Dehydra script
walks the GCC tree node structure using the GTY attributes present
in GCC. Treehydra is included in Dehydra source, and is built when a
plugin-enabled CXX is detected.
- Coccinelle aka spatch
Coccinelle, also known as spatch,
is a source-to-source translator available under GPLv2.
(now Valerie Aurora) has written an article about
here’s another article about it.
- bddbddb / bddshell.
bddbddb (aka b5b) is
a general-purpose tool for analyzing big programs.
It lets you read in a program and then enter queries in a
Prolog-like language, and its internals use the BDD datastructure to
make all of this work for large programs.
lets you use it interactively.
These are more “tools for building analysis tools”, rather than
analysis tools themselves.
LLVM is really a compiler infrastructure
project, but among other things it can be used to create
analysis tools. But it’s not a security analysis tool by itself.
(GNU Affero General Public License version 3)
is a static analysis tool that reports on
common mistakes in (Bourne) shell scripts.
It is not specific to security, but several of its reports
is a C/C++ parser based on Elkhound.
GCC also has a parser.
check-all-the-things is a project that tries
to run as many tools as possible on some software
(be prepared for a lot of output!).
The Software Assurance
Market Place (SWAMP) can run a number of tools on software.
is a similar program to flawfinder,
ITS4 (from Cigital), but it isn’t
open source software or Free Software (OSS/FS) as defined above,
and as far as I know it isn’t maintained.
Of course, you could go the other way: Instead of looking for specific
common weaknesses, you could prove that the program actually meets
(or does not meet) certain requirements.
If you’re interested in open source software tools related to
proving programs correct, seej
High Assurance (for Security or Safety) and Free-Libre / Open Source Software (FLOSS)... with Lots on Formal Methods / Software Verification
Open Proofs website.
- CERT ROSE checkers
checks C and C++ against a subset of the rules in the
CERT Secure Coding Standards for C and C++.
The ROSE checkers are themselves open source, and build on
the open source ROSE, but ROSE itself is fundamentally dependent on a
a proprietary component (Edison Design Group’s C/C++ compiler), so
the whole stack is in fact proprietary.
- ROSE/Compass (BSD license)
is a source-to-source
translator that can be used to build analysis programs.
It includes Compass, which reports violations of a number of rules that
relate to security.
- VisualCodeGrepper - this is a code security review tool for C/C++, C#, VB, PHP, Java,
The EULA says it's under the GPL.. but I can't find any actual source code.
As far as I can tell it's a lexically-based tool, which means it
appears to work the same way as flawfinder, RATS, and ITS4.
There are various suppliers that sell proprietary programs that
do this kind of static analysis.
I can't list them all, but I may as well list some.
These tools include:
Their Fortify Source Code Analysis tool is briefly
described in the PCWorld article
Software Searches for Security Flaws.
Fortify Software is now owned by HP (as of 2010).
Coverity’s SWAT tool searches for
defects in general, including some security issues.
It’s based on previous work on the
Stanford checker, which was
implemented by xgcc and the Metal language
(the Stanford site has lots of interesting papers, but no code as
far as I can tell -- please let me know if things are otherwise).
develops and sells “static-analysis and program-transformation
tools for C/C++ and Ada”.
This include CodeSurfer/CodeSonar (R) for static analysis, and
CodeSurfer/x86 for analyzing and rewriting binary executables.
is a static source code analyzer for
Java, C/C++, RPG and Python. The Java code analyzer is able to find
source code vulnerabilities like SQL-injection, XSS and some others. It
works in a way similar to Lapse+.
(There's a free version with a few capabilities, but you need to pay
for its more advanced features.)
has tools to analyze software for security vulnerabilities
(including binary analysis).
performs static analysis on Java and Ada programs to find defects.
Red Lizard Software is an Australian firm
that sells Goanna, a tool that analyzes C/C++ code for software quality bugs
(including some security vulnerabilities).
Kestrel Institute works to
“make formal methods work in practice”;
they have various proprietary tools.
Ounce Labs’s product Prexis.
Ounce labs was recently bought by IBM.
Klocwork sells various products
that do static analysis.
@stake, now owned by
sells a tool called the
SmartRisk (TM) Analyzer; unlike many tools, this
one analyzes binary code.
Parasoft sells some static
Microsoft bought the company Intrinsa, and their product (known as PREfix)
is used now to do static analysis of many of their own products.
is “a static analyzer that detects errors in
source code of C, C++/C++0x, C#, and Java applications.”
Historically it’ was not specifically focused on security issues,
but more recent versions have added that information.
Here's an article about
PVS-Studio being used to find mistakes in the Linux kernel.
Here is more info
Parfait is a
Sun research project, which
has found some vulnerabilities.
An interview discusses
At the time of this writing, this is unreleased.
KDM Analytics has developed
some prototypes using a standards-based approach.
Code is first transformed into
(an OMG standard), and rules are
defined using SBVR (another OMG standard).
Then you can search for matches/violations of rules.
One neat thing is that this can analyze (in principle) either binary
or source code in arbitrary languages.
I know some people are modifying gcc to generate KDM.
SBVR (the rule-defining language)
is a restricted-English logic language, so the rules are unusually readable.
To my knowledge, these are not available on the market yet.
There are of course many companies that sell the service of performing
security reviews of source code for a fee; who generally
use a combination of tools and expertise.
These include Secure Software
developer of RATS, and
backers of the
Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP).
Arian Evans has announced that he’s working on a list of such tools,
and intends to post that list at
OWASP; by the time you read this,
it may already be available.
Software Assurance Metrics and Tool Evaluation (SAMATE)
project posts a list of static analysis tools, along
with a list of related papers and projects.
Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE)
is developing a standard set of definitions of common weaknesses and
Other places list security tools, but not really static analysis tools;
the Talisker Security Wizardry Portal and
insecure.org’s survey of
the top 75 tools.
Java2s has a list of Java-related tools for source
analysis which may be of interest.
They make the common mistake of saying “commercial” when they mean
“proprietary” (OSS is commercial software too).
There are a vast number of static analysis tools that check for
style or for possible errors, which might happen to catch security
problems. They’re usually not focused on security issues, though,
and there are too many to list anyway, so I don’t try to list them all here.
This list can’t possibly be exhaustive, sorry.
My goal here isn’t to provide all possible alternatives, merely to
provide useful information pointing to at least some other tools and
My goal is mainly so you can have an idea of what’s going on in the field.
Be careful defining language subsets
Many people have developed “language subsets” in an effort to reduce
the risk of errors.
In concept, these can be really helpful, especially for languages like C
which are easy to abuse.
Such language subsets should be automated by static analysis tools; then,
it’s easy to check if you’ve met the rules.
But these only have value if the subset is well-designed.
In particular, the subset should be designed to minimize cases where
perfectly acceptable constructs are forbidden
(essentially false positives), and should maximize detection of actual
failures (best done through analysis of real-world failures).
One of the better-known subsets for C is “MISRA C”.
Les Hatton has published a detailed and devastating critique of
older versions of MISRA C
(of both MISRA C 1998 and the later MISRA C 2004).
Fundamentally, he believes (and provides good evidence) taht
MISRA C’s development was not based on real data on
failures, but instead on random rule creation, some of which are absolutely
full of false positives, and many have no value.
See Les Hatton’s
papers, including those showing why those versions of
MISRA C are badly flawed.
Language subsetting in an industrial context: a comparison of MISRA C 1998 and MISRA C 2004 is
“A comparison of real to false positive ratios between the 1998 and 2004
versions of the MISRA C guidelines on a common population of 7 commercial
software packages”, and it has devestating conclusions:
“On these results, MISRA C 2004 seems a step backwards and attempts at
compliance with either document are essentially pointless until something
is done about improving the wording of the standard and its match with
existing experimental data. In its current form, the complexity and
noisiness of the rules suggest that only the tool vendors are likely
An additional problem with MISRA C is that it is not
open access (aka Internet-published). That is, you can’t just
use Google to find it and then immediately view its contents
(without registering or paying for the contents).
That makes it hard to apply.
Purported standards that aren’t open access
are becoming increasingly pointless; IETF, OASIS, W3C, Ecma, and
many other bodies already do this.
I’m a fan of Les Hatton’s work, and I particularly like his
paper on his EC-- ruleset.
The EC-- ruleset is Internet-published, and is much smaller,
so it’s actually easier to apply than MISRA C.
More importantly, though, the EC-- ruleset appears to be much better
matched to the real world for finding failures, so I strongly
prefer EC-- over MISRA C.
Here were his rules for creating the EC-- ruleset; once you look at this
list, I think you’ll see why:
- Every rule is associated with faults which appeared in the quoted surveys
and failed in the sense described above.
- Each rule covers as many of the fault modes as possible to reduce the total
number of rules
- Each rule is easy to understand and as unambiguous as possible
- Each rule is as non-contentious as possible to ease acceptance
- Taken together, the rules cover the vast majority of the faults described in
the earlier surveys and should therefore have a high signal to noise ratio
with detection rates of around 8 per 1 KXLOC expected.
Additional rules specific to security would be a good idea, too, if they’re
CERT C Secure Coding Standard
is an effort to craft rules for developing secure C programs.
I haven’t had time to evaluate it in-depth, though, so I don’t know
what its quality is.
Another document you might examine is
Security Development Lifecycle (SDL) Banned Function Calls.
Dynamic/Hybrid Analysis Tools
Static analysis tools are unlikely to catch all problems in practice;
they’re best complemented with other approaches.
Certainly, having humans look at code is wonderful (this is a
manual static analysis approach).
Dynamic analysis tools send data to executing programs as a way
to possibly find problems.
Many tools are based on the idea of sending
random or partly random data for testing; some “randomize” but
try to concentrate on patterns most likely to reveal security problems.
Dynamic analysis tools include:
American Fuzzy Lop (AFL) is a really good fuzzer, focused
on file-level fuzzing.
SPIKE Proxy is an OSS/FS HTTP proxy for
finding security flaws in web sites.
It is part of the Spike Application Testing Suite and
supports automated SQL injection detection, web site crawling,
login form brute forcing, overflow detection,
and directory traversal detection.
Brute Force Binary Tester (BFBTester)
checks for single and multiple argument command line overflows
and environment variable overflows, and version 2.0
can also watch for
tempfile creation activity.
Michal Zalewski’s mangleme
sends stressing random data for testing web browsers.
is another tools for testing web browsers by sending random data.
zzuf is a fuzzer
(open source, MIT-style license).
FOSDEM 2007 slides
Joe Barr’s article
- OWASP ZAP dynamically probes web applications, looking for indicators
of unknown vulnerabilities.
There a lot of these kinds of tools.
There are lots of scanning tools for checking for already known specific
vulnerabilities, and sometimes they help.
Nessus is a widely-used
vulnerability assessment tool.
scans web servers for common problems.
There are many, many other tools and techniques available; I can’t
list all of them.
You can find a few leads from the
Top 75 Security Tools
survey at insecure.org.
Web Vulnerability Assessment Tools.
You might want to look at my
Secure Programming HOWTO
web page, or some of my other writings such as
Open Standards and Security,
Open Source Software and Software Assurance (Security),
High Assurance (for Security or Safety) and Free-Libre / Open Source Software (FLOSS).
You can also view
my home page.